For RF communications, a Fresnel zone, named for physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel, is one of a (theoretically infinite) number of concentric ellipsoids in the radiation pattern of a circular aperture. Fresnel zones result from diffraction by the circular aperture. The cross section of the first (innermost) Fresnel zone is circular. Subsequent Fresnel zones are annular (doughnut-shaped) in cross section, and concentric with the first.
In telecommunications when a RF signal is transmitted, it gets reflected in all directions. It takes different paths, for example, it can hit a wall, ceiling, glass, etc. Signals get reflected or refracted or absorbed by these obstacles. During this process, multiple wavefronts of the signal are creating, therefore duplicating the original signal. This is called Multipath. At the receiver end, there will be duplicates of the original signals from different reflections. This is called Multipath Fading or Multipath distortion.
The point where the rubber meets the road in wireless networks is the antenna. The only thing is the before we hit the antenna, we have the entire antenna path which consists of various opportunities for error and issues. From external interference, to Passive Intermod (PIM), to actual faults in the path. Once the issue has been identified in the antenna path itself and not the external RF environment, there is the potential for a large variety of antenna path component combinations including fiber, coax cables, duplexers, diplexers, connectors, antennas, RETs, TMA.
With the rollout of fiber-fed antennas, RETs, and DAS systems seemingly making RF systems more complex, one simple item remains. RF is transmitted out of an antenna. It may be a large antenna with 18 sectors built into it or a small 100cm square antenna, but each antenna holds to the physics of antenna design. Understanding the basic antenna principles allows engineers to have that ingrained sanity check for system design and optimization.
A recent JD Power study of wireless customer care satisfaction found that almost 1/5 of full time subscribers utilized YouTube to resolve a problem with their wireless service. Although the study didn't answer if they resolved their issue through YouTube, it would point to higher generalization of consumers.
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